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News Roundup 4 October – 10 October

October 13, 2021

Mali accuses France of training ‘terrorists’ in the country

Afghanistan: UN chief condemns ‘horrific’ attack at Kunduz mosque

Sudan: 16 Factions, Armed Groups Call For National Consensus Charter

Ethiopia conflict sees hunger and atrocities spread from Tigray to Amhara

Libya: War crimes likely committed since 2016, UN probe finds

UN experts decry possible crimes against humanity in Libya

Children ‘indoctrinated’ to fight for insurgents in Mozambique: UNICEF

UN accused of turning a blind eye to Yemen abuses

‘We have failed Yemen’: UN human rights council ends war crime probe

UN Votes to Appoint Human Rights Watchdog in Afghanistan

News Roundup 27 September – 3 October

October 6, 2021

The northern countryside of Homs in Syria is facing a similar fate as Daraa

Iraq: ‘Moral obligation’ to ensure justice for Yazidi and other survivors of ISIL crimes

EXCLUSIVE Some 1,900 Colombian guerrillas operating from Venezuela, says Colombia military chief

Top UN envoy ‘encouraged’ by recent engagement of Israeli and Palestinian officials

Summary killings, human-rights abuses surge in eastern DRC

Mozambique: ISIS-linked Group Using Child Soldiers

Myanmar Junta Announces ‘Goodwill’ Ceasefire With Ethnic Armed Groups

Myanmar Junta Accused of Targeting Civilians with Landmines

Yemen asks international community to exert pressure on Houthi coup leaders and their sponsors to ‘end bloodshed’

Ethiopia to work with AU to find peaceful solution to conflict in Tigray

Legal Roundup February 2021 – September 2021

October 4, 2021

We are very pleased to present the legal roundup for February 2021 – September 2021, that contains publications on issues related armed groups and international law, non-international armed conflict and the relationship between IHL and IHRL. It was prepared by Andrea Farrés, and it was finalised with input from Ezequiel Heffes and Katharine Fortin.

If you have a 2021 publication which you think should be included in this roundup, please do not hesitate to contact the editors of the blog, Katharine Fortin and Ezequiel Heffes.

Please note that due to paywalls and your institution’s permissions, the given link may not always take you to the text of the article. The Armed Groups and International law blog has published legal roundups since 2012. For previous versions of the legal roundup, see here.

Armed Non-State Actors, NIACs and International Law

Asal, Victor and Nagel, Robert U., Control over Bodies and Territories: Insurgent Territorial Control and Sexual ViolenceSecurity Studies, Volume 30, Issue 1, 136-158.

Bagheri, Saeed, International Law and the War with Islamic State: Challenges for Jus ad Bellum and Jus in Bello, Hart Publishing, 2021.

Berkes, Antal, International Human Rights Law Beyond State Territorial Control, Cambridge University Press.

Bolte, Brandon, The Puzzle of Militia Containment in Civil War, International Studies Quarterly, March 2021, Volume 65, Issue 1, 250-261.

Bouhlel, Ferdaous and Guichaoua, Yvan, Norms, Non-combatants’ agency and restraint in jihadi violence in northern maliInternational Interactions.

Duursma, Allard and Fliervoet, Feike, Fuelling Factionalism? The Impact of Peace Processes on Rebel Group Fragmentation in Civil Wars, Journal of Conflict Resolution, April 2021, Volume 65, Issue 4, 778 – 812. 

Jo, Hyeran, Alley, Joshua K., Park, Yohan and Jordan, Soren, Signaling restraint: international engagement and rebel groups’ commitments to international lawInternational Interactions, 2021, Volume 47, Issue 5, 928-954.

Mantilla, Giovanni, Lawmaking under Pressure: International Humanitarian Law and Internal Armed Conflict, Cornell University Press, 2020.

Moyn, Samuel, Humane: How the United States Abandoned Peace and Reinvented War, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2021.

Pendle, Naomi, Competing authorities and norms of restraint: governing community-embedded armed groups in South SudanInternational Interactions, 2021, Volume 47, Issue 5, 873-897.

Stein, Arthur and Cantin, Marc-Olivier, Crowding out the field: External Support to Insurgents and the Intensity of Inter-rebel Fighting in Civil WarInternational Interactions, 2021, Volume 47, Issue 4, 662-691.

Conflict classification

Arai-Takahashi, Yutaka, Thresholds in Flux—the Standard for Ascertaining the Requirement of Organization for Armed Groups under International Humanitarian Law Journal of Conflict & Security Law, Spring 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, 79 – 115.

Bradley, Martha M., Additional Protocol II: Elevating the minimum threshold of intensity? International Review of the Red Cross, First View, 1-28.

Derejko, Nathan, A Forever War? Rethinking the Temporal Scope of Non-International Armed ConflictJournal of Conflict & Security Law, Summer 2021, Volume 26, Issue 2, 347-376.

Hamza, Marishet M., Fragmented Armed Groups in International Humanitarian LawHumanitäres Völkerrecht, June 2021, Issue 1-2, 98 – 111. 

Nejbir, Deniz Arbet, Applying Humanitarian Law: A Review of the Legal Status of the Turkey–Kurdistan Workers’ Party (pkk) ConflictJournal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 1, 37 – 70. 

Rebel governance 

Fortin, Katharine, To Be or Not to Be?: Legal Identity in Crisis in Non-International Armed ConflictsHuman Rights Quarterly, February 2021, Volume 43, Number 1, 29-69 

Krtsch, Roman, The Tactical Use of Civil Resistance by Rebel Groups: Evidence from India’s Maoist InsurgencyJournal of Conflict Resolution, August-September 2021, Volume 65, Issue 7, 1251 – 1277. 

Jackson, Ashley, Negotiating Survival. Civilian-Insurgent Relations in Afghanistan, Hurst, 2021.

Provost, René, Rebel Courts. The Administration of Justice by Armed Insurgents, Oxford University Press, 2021. 

Rodenhäuser, Tilman, The legal protection of persons living under the control of non-State armed groupsInternational Review of the Red Cross, First View, 1-30.

Sosnowski, Marika, Citizenship Constellations in Syria, MENA’s Frozen Conflicts, November 2020, 68-73.

Tokdemir, Efe, Sedashov, Evgeny, Hande Ogutcu-Fu, Sema, Moreno Leon, Carlos E., Jeremy Berkowitz, and Akcinaroglu, Seden, Rebel Rivalry and the Strategic Nature of Rebel Group Ideology and DemandsJournal of Conflict Resolution, April 2021, Volume 65, Issue 4, 729 – 758. 

Non-State Armed Groups, International Responsibility and Reparations

Greenman, Kathryn, State Responsibility and Rebels. The History and Legacy of Protecting Investment Against Revolution, Cambridge University Press.

Herman, Olivia, Beyond the state of play: Establishing a duty of non-State armed groups to provide reparationsInternational Review of the Red Cross.

Khaitan, Bulbul, Alternative to the Existing Rule of Attribution for Use of Force by Non-State Actors in an Armed ConflictJournal of Conflict & Security Law, Spring 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, 41 – 78. 

Moffet, Luke, Violence and repair: the practice and challenges of non-State armed groups engaging in reparationsInternational Review of the Red Cross.

Jus ad Bellum

Huang, Reyko, and Ayatollahi Tabaar, Mohammad, We Are All Coethnics: State Identities and Foreign Interventions in Violent ConflictJournal of Global Security Studies, September 2021, Volume 6, Issue 3,  1-17.

Ilgaz, Huseyin, Qui bono? Foreign military, economic, diplomatic interventions and the termination of civil wars: An integrative approachInternational Interactions, 2021.

Redaelli, Chiara, Intervention in Civil Wars: Effectiveness, Legitimacy, and Human Rights, Hart Publishing, 2021.

International Criminal Law

Clapham, Andrew, Thinking Beyond the Offence of Torture, Advance Article, Journal of International Criminal Justice, June 2021.

Cormier, Monique, Testing the boundaries of the ICC’s territorial jurisdiction in the Afghanistan situationQuestions of International Law, 2021, Issue 78, 43-56.

Eatwell, Tatyana and Powles, Steven QC, ‘Quasi-governers’ and questions relating to impunity and legal certainty’, Advance Article, Journal of International Criminal Justice, June 2021

Gabriele, Chiara, Matheson, Kelly, and Vazquez Llorente, Raquel, The Role of Mobile Technology in Documenting International Crimes: The Affaire Castro et Kizito in the Democratic Republic of CongoJournal of International Criminal Justice, March 2021, Volume 19, Issue 1, 101-130.

Gaeta, Paola, ‘Another Step in What it Means to Be Human’ — Prohibition v. Criminalization of Torture as a Private Act’, Advance Article, Journal of International Criminal Justice, June 2021.

Le Moli, Genevra, Torture by Non-State Actors: Four Inquiries, Advance Article, Journal of International Criminal Justice, June 2021.

MacNeil, Gillian, Legality Matters: Crimes Against Humanity and the Problems and Promise of the Prohibition on Other Inhumane Acts, Asser Press, 2021.

Nowak, Manfred, Can Private Actors Torture? An Interview with Manfred Nowak, Advance Article, Journal of International Criminal Justice, June 2021.

Pottle, Émilie, What is torture? Making the Case for Expanding the Definition to Include Private Individuals as Perpetrators, Advance Article, Journal of International Criminal Justice, June 2021.

Riccardi, Alice, The Palestine Decision and Territorial Jurisdiction of the ICC: Is the Court Finding its Inner Voice?,Questions of International Law, 2021, Issue 78, 23-42.

Sander, Barrie, Doing Justice to History: Confronting the Past in International Criminal Courts, Oxford University Press, 2021.

Tan, Yudan, The Rome Statute as Evidence of Customary International Law, Brill Nijhoff, 2021.

Targeting and Detention

Sutton, Rebecca, The Humanitarian Civilian: How the Idea of Distinction Circulates Within and Beyond International Humanitarian Law, Oxford University Press, 2021.

Tinsae Birhane, Fikire, Targeting of Children in Non-International Armed ConflictsJournal of Conflict & Security Law, Summer 2021, Volume 26, Issue 2, 388-400. 

Teleki, Cristina, Detainee Operations in Ukraine: Risk or Opportunity for International Law?Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 1, 111 – 140. 

Tucker, Colin, The Effect of Aerial Bombardment on Insurgent Civilian VictimizationSecurity Studies, Volume 30, Number 3, 450 – 483. 


Hoffberger-Pippan, Elisabeth, Less-Lethal Weapons under International Law: A Three-Dimensional Perspective, Cambridge University Press, 2021.

Transitional Justice and Peacebuilding

Assouline, Philippe, and Trager, Robert, Concessions for Concession’s Sake: Injustice, Indignation, and the Construction of Intractable Conflict in Israel–PalestineJournal of Conflict Resolution, 2021, Volume 65, Issue 9, 1489 – 1520.

Bolte, Brandon, Joo, Minie M., and Mukherjee, Bumba, Security Consolidation in the Aftermath of Civil War: Explaining the Fates of Victorious MilitiasJournal of Conflict Resolution, 2021, Volume 65, Issue 9, 1459 – 1488. 

Daniels, Lesley-Ann, Stick Then Carrot: When Do Governments Give Amnesty during Civil War?International Studies Quarterly, June 2021, Volume 65, Issue 2, 401–408.

Fox, Gregory H., Old and New Peace AgreementsSeton Hall Law Review, 2022, Volume 52, Issue 3, forthcoming. 

Giraldo, Marta Lucía, and Jerónimo Tobón, Daniel, Personal archives and transitional justice in Colombia: the Fonds of Fabiola Lalinde and Mario Agudelo, 2021, International Journal of Human Rights, Volume 25, Issue 3, 529-549.

Iverson, Jens, Jus Post Bellum: The Rediscovery, Foundations, and Future of the Law of Transforming War into Peace, Brill Nijhoff, 2021.

Margherita, Belgioioso, Di Salvatore, Jessica, and Pinckney, Jonathan, Tangled up in Blue: The Effect of UN Peacekeeping on Nonviolent Protests in Post–Civil War CountriesInternational Studies Quarterly, March 2021, Volume 65, Issue 1, 1-15.

Menninga, Elizabeth J, and Prorok, Alyssa K, Battles and Bargains: Escalation, Commitment, and Negotiations in Civil WarInternational Studies Quarterly, June 2021, Volume 65, Issue 2, 406–422.

Müller, C Sophia, The Role of Law in Enforcing Peace Agreements: Lessons Learned from ColombiaJournal of Conflict & Security Law, Spring 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, 117 – 156. 


Barbelet, Veronique, Conflict, instability and hunger: breaking the cycle in the Central African Republic, Overseas Development Institute

Bongard, Pascal, with the collaboration of Bellal, Annyssa, From Words to Deeds. A Research Study of Armed Non-State Actors’ Practice and Interpretation of International Humanitarian and Human Rights Norms. The National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (Mouvement National de Libération de l’Azawad, MNLA), Mali

Gaston, Erica, Regulating irregular actors: Can due diligence checks mitigate the risks of working with non-state and substate forces?, Overseas Development Institute

Heffes, Ezequiel, with the collaboration of Bellal, Annyssa, From Words to Deeds. A Research Study of Armed Non-State Actors’ Practice and Interpretation of International Humanitarian and Human Rights Norms. The Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia–Ejército del Pueblo (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia – People’s Army, FARC-EP), Colombia.

Smith, Graeme, and Mansfield, David, War gains: How the economic benefits of the conflict are distributed in Afghanistan and the implications for peace. A case study on Nimroz province, Overseas Development Institute

A Decade of Loss: Syria’s Youth After Ten Years of Crisis, International Committee of the Red Cross

A Threshold Crossed. Israeli Authorities and the Crimes of Apartheid and Persecution, Human Rights Watch

Allies, Partners and Proxies: An Introduction to Support Relationships in Armed Conflict, International Committee of the Red Cross

News Roundup 20 September – 26 September

September 29, 2021

Thousands flee homes once again as two Shan armed groups fight for control of territory

Five Years After Peace Deal, Colombia Is Running Out of Time, Experts Say

Syria: 10 years of war has left at least 350,000 dead

Ravaged by war, Syrian rebel area struggles with virus surge

What’s behind the rising violence in western Niger?

Rohingya Armed Groups Active Again in Western Myanmar

This is our opportunity to end the Taliban’s use of child soldiers

Rebel attacks kill 15 soldiers, civilians in western Cameroon

‘Tragic mistake’: U.S. determines Kabul drone strike killed innocent aid worker, nine family members

With region ‘at a crossroads’, Palestinian President calls on UN’s Guterres to convene international peace conference

News Roundup 13 September – 19 September

September 22, 2021

Niger: Children Killed or Forcibly Recruited By Armed Islamist Groups in Devastating Conflict – New Report

Yemen: the seven-year war with no peace in sight

Afghanistan crisis: Taliban kill civilians in resistance stronghold

Taliban fighters tighten grip in rebellious Panjshir region with killings and food control, witness says

After 10 years of war in Syria, siege tactics still threaten civilians

UN mission responding to evolving needs in Sudan transition process

DR Congo: Massacres Persist Despite Martial Law

Renewed hostilities in Daraa offer lessons and opportunities in Syria. But will Washington pay attention?

Yemeni government forces again on the backfoot

‘Gross abuses’: Armed groups killing, recruiting in Niger

News Roundup 6 September – 12 September

September 15, 2021

France: Lafarge loses ruling in Syria crime against humanity case

Lafarge case uncovers French duplicity, hypocrisy, says analyst

Military Faction Stages Coup in Mineral-Rich Guinea

Myanmar’s Shadow Government Announces ‘Defensive War’

Human Rights abuses intensifying in eastern DR Congo – UNHCR

Violence Against Civilians in Eastern DRC Reaching New Heights, UN Says

Yemen: As conflict drags on, ‘no quick wins’ – UN envoy

UN: 18,000 Yemeni civilians killed in airstrikes since 2015

CAR Court Accuses Ex-warlord of Crimes Against Humanity

Syrian military groups operating under Turkey-backed SNA merge

News Roundup 30 August – 5 September

September 8, 2021

Security Council urges Taliban to provide safe passage out of Afghanistan

White House: Biden told commanders to ‘stop at nothing’ to go after ISIS

Worst Tripoli fighting in a year tests Libya ceasefire

Israel-Palestine: Waste no opportunity for ‘serious’ political negotiation, envoy urges

Tigray aid situation worsening by the day, warn UN humanitarians

Pakistani soldiers killed in cross border fire from Afghanistan

What Nigerians displaced by Boko Haram say about living with ex-fighters

Syrian army bombards rebels in birthplace of uprising – residents

Five years on, Colombia’s coca regions remain at war and distrust is growing

Myanmar’s Opposition Is Forming Fragile Alliances With Armed Ethnic Groups

News Roundup 23 August – 29 August

September 1, 2021

Chad Rebel Group FACT Says It’s Willing to Join National Dialogue

Biden promises further strikes on Afghan militant groups

Pioneering report continues to help children survive conflict

Increased Syria violence prompts largest civilian displacements in a year, as gridlock stymies political talks

No end to Yemen civil war on the horizon, senior UN official briefs Security Council

No strings attached? How Europe’s military support for Mali closes its eyes to abuses

Fighting, flooding, and donor fatigue: Unpacking South Sudan’s food crisis

Taliban retakes power, but it faces mounting challenges ahead

‘Resistance is still alive’: armed groups drive out Taliban fighters

UN condemns ‘abhorrent’ terrorist attack at Kabul airport

News Roundup 16 August – 22 August

August 25, 2021

Report details grave violations against children in Afghanistan

‘No way out’ for imperilled Afghans, broader international response needed

Ethiopia: UN chief gravely concerned over ‘unspeakable violence’ in Tigray

Competing armed groups carrying out ‘mass rape’ in Congo: UN

Despite Cease-Fire in Tigray, No End in Sight for Conflict

1,150 flee Colombia village caught between 2 armed groups

EXCLUSIVE: Nigeria’s secret programme to lure top Boko Haram defectors

Afghanistan: ‘Now is the time to stand as one’, UN chief tells Security Council

Palestine refugees face ‘dire’ humanitarian conditions amid ongoing clashes in southern Syria: UNRWA

Afghan crisis: Russia plans for new era with Taliban rule

News Roundup 9 August – 15 August

August 18, 2021

Over 18,000 children recruited by Colombia’s FARC rebels -court

Mali: Dozens of civilians massacred in militant raids on villages

Chad invites armed groups to participate in national dialogue

Mozambique Government Retakes Key Town from Militants

Damascus’s False Reconciliation Failed in Daraa

Ethiopia denounces rebel alliance as war widens

Palestinian Rockets in May Killed Civilians in Israel, Gaza

Myanmar army attacks medics, hampering COVID response, rights groups say

UNHCR gravely concerned about systematic sexual violence in DR Congo’s Tanganyika Province

Afghan leader rallies forces in Taliban-besieged northern city