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Legal Roundup – 2019

March 11, 2020

We are very pleased to present the legal roundup for 2019, that contains publications on issues related armed groups and international law, non-international armed conflict and the relationship between IHL and IHRL. If you have a 2019 publication which you think should be included in this roundup, please do not hesitate to contact me at my uu.nl address.

Thanks go to Sam Jackson for preparing this legal roundup, which was finalised with input from Ezequiel Heffes and me. Please note that due to paywalls and your institution’s permissions, the given link may not always take you to the text of the article. The Armed Groups and International law blog has published legal roundups since 2012. For previous versions of the legal roundup, see here.

Armed Non-State Actors and IHL/IHRL

Ariel I. Ahram (2019) Sexual Violence, Competitive State Building, and Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, 13:2, 180-196

Askari P. and Hosseinnejad, K. (2019) Non-State Courts: Illegal or Conditional? The Case of Da’esh Courts, Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies, Volume 10, Issue 2, pages 240-264.

Callamard, A. (2019). Towards international human rights law applied to armed groups. Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights, 37(1), 85–100

Condra, L. and Wright, A. Civilians, Control, and Collaboration during Civil Conflict, International Studies Quarterly, Volume 63, Issue 4, December 2019, Pages 897–907

Fazal, Tanisha M and Konaev, Margarita, Homelands versus Minelands: Why Do Armed Groups Commit to the Laws of War?, Journal of Global Security Studies, Volume 4, Issue 2, April 2019, Pages 149–168

Fortin, Katharine, Armed Groups and the DOD Manual: Shining a Light on Overlooked Issues  in Michael A. Newton (ed), The United States Department of Defense Law of War Manual: Commentary and Critique (Cambridge University Press 2019).

Foster, Margaret, Siegel, David, Pink Slips from the Underground: Changes in Terror Leadership, International Studies Quarterly, Volume 63, Issue 2, June 2019, Pages 231–243

Galani, Sofia, Terrorist Hostage-taking and Human Rights: Protecting Victims of Terrorism under the European Convention on Human Rights, Human Rights Law Review, Volume 19, Issue 1, February 2019, Pages 149–171

Gordon, Neve and Perugini, Nicola, ‘Hospital Shields’ and the Limits of International Law, European Journal of International Law, Volume 30, Issue 2, May 2019, Pages 439–463

Haer, Roos (2019) Children and armed conflict: looking at the future and learning from the past, Third World Quarterly, 40:1, 74-91

Heffes E., Kotlik M.D., Ventura M.J. (2020) Introduction: The Functions and Interactions of Non-State Actors in the Realm of International Humanitarian Law. In: Heffes E., Kotlik M., Ventura M. (eds) International Humanitarian Law and Non-State Actors. T.M.C. Asser Press, The Hague

Heffes, Ezequiel (2019), Armed Groups and the Protection of Health Care, 95 INT’L L. STUD. 226

Henckaerts J-M. and Wiesener, C. Human Rights Obligations of Non-State Armed Groups: An Assessment Based on Recent Practice. In: Heffes E., Kotlik M., Ventura M. (eds) International Humanitarian Law and Non-State Actors. T.M.C. Asser Press, The Hague, pp. 195-227.

Holtermann,H.  Diversionary Rebel Violence in Territorial Civil War, International Studies Quarterly, Volume 63, Issue 2, June 2019, Pages 215–230

Hiemstra H., Nohle E. (2019) The Role of Non-State Armed Groups in the Development and Interpretation of International Humanitarian Law. In: Gill T., McCormack T., Geiß R., Krieger H., Paulussen C. (eds) Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law, Volume 20, 2017.

Masullo J., Mouly C., Garrido M.B. (2019) Alternative Forms of Civilian Noncooperation with Armed Groups: The Case of Samaniego in Colombia. In: Mouly C., Hernández Delgado E. (eds) Civil Resistance and Violent Conflict in Latin America. Studies of the Americas. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham

Mégret, Frédéric and Swinden, Chloe, Returning the ‘Fallen Terrorist’ for Burial in Non-international Armed Conflicts, Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies, Volume 10 (2019): Issue 2 (Nov 2019)pp, 337–370

Perkoski, E., Internal Politics and the Fragmentation of Armed Groups, International Studies Quarterly, Volume 63, Issue 4, December 2019, Pages 876–889

Purdeková, Andrea, Rectified Sites of Violence from Westgate to Lampedusa: Exploring the Link between Public Amnesia and Conflict in Ongoing Confrontations, International Journal of Transitional Justice, Volume 13, Issue 3, November 2019, Pages 504–523

Rothkopf, Ilana,  International Humanitarian Law and Non-State Practice in Armed Conflict: Combatant’s Privilege and Kurdish Fighters in Syria, Journal of Conflict and Security Law, Volume 24, Issue 2, Summer 2019, Pages 271–296

Ventura, Manuel J., Automatic Criminal Liability for Unlawful Confinement (Imprisonment) as a War Crime? A Potential Consequence of Denying Non-State Armed Groups the Power to Detain in Non-International Armed Conflicts. Ezequiel Heffes, Marcos Kotlik & Manuel J. Ventura (eds), International Humanitarian Law and Non-State Actors: Debates, Law and Practice (The Hague/Berlin, T.M.C. Asser Press/Springer, 2020), pp. 149-168.

Watkin, K. (2019), Medical Care in Urban Conflict, 95 INT’L L. STUD. 49

Yishai, B, Save the Injured – Don’t Kill IHL: Rejecting Absolute Immunity for ‘Shielding Hospitals’, European Journal of International Law, Volume 30, Issue 2, May 2019, Pages 465–480

Non-International Armed Conflicts (General)

Bachar, G.  J. (2019) “Collateral Damages: Domestic Monetary Compensation for Civilians in Asymmetric Conflict,” Chicago Journal of International Law: Vol. 19: No. 2, Article 2

Bartels, R. (2017) A Fine Line Between Protection and Humanisation: The Interplay Between the Scope of Application of International Humanitarian Law and Jurisdiction over Alleged War Crimes Under International Criminal Law, Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law, Vol 20, 2017, pp33-74

Bellal, Annyssa, The War Report 2018, Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Norwegian Center for Human Rights, April 2019

D’Cunha S. (2019) The Notion of External NIACs: Reconsidering the Intensity Threshold in Light of Contemporary Armed Conflicts. In: Gill T., McCormack T., Geiß R., Krieger H., Paulussen C. (eds) Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law, Volume 20, 2017

Clapham, Andrew (2019) Detention and Prosecution as Described in the DOD Manual, in Newton, M., The United States Department of Defense Law of War Manual: Commentary and Critique (Cambridge University Press 2018), pp282-297

Dumas, H. (2019). When children remember: A history of the Tutsi genocide through the eyes of children (1994–2006). International Review of the Red Cross, 101(910), 37-57

Galvez Lima, X. Inked or Not: Maras and Their Participation in El Salvador’s Recent Armed Conflict, Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies, Volume 10, Issue 2, 265-302.

Graham, David, E. (2019) The Manuel’s Redefined Concept of Non-International Armed Conflict: Applying Faux LOAC to a Fictional NIAC in Newton, M., The United States Department of Defense Law of War Manual: Commentary and Critique (Cambridge University Press 2018),pp 141-160

Haq, Adil Ahmad (2019) Misdirected: Targeting and Attack under the DOD Manual, in Newton, M., The United States Department of Defense Law of War Manual: Commentary and Critique (Cambridge University Press 2018),pp 225-260

Kleffner, J. (2019), The Legal Fog of an Illusion: Three Reflections on “Organization” and “Intensity” as Criteria for the Temporal Scope of the Law of Non-International Armed Conflict, 95 INT’L L. STUD. 161

Krüger, H, (2019), “Famine Crimes and Forced Starvation” – Starvation as a Method of Warfare – a Plea for the Prosecution of Crimes According to § 11 I S. 1 Nr. 5 VStGB, Humanitäres Völkerrecht, Volume 2, Issue 3-4, pg.157

Quinn, J, Joshi, M, and Melander, E., One Dyadic Peace Leads to Another? Conflict Systems, Terminations, and Net Reduction in Fighting Groups, International Studies Quarterly, Volume 63, Issue 4, December 2019, Pages 863–875

Smith, T. (2019). Critical perspectives on environmental protection in non-international armed conflict: Developing the principles of distinction, proportionality and necessity. Leiden Journal of International Law, 32(4), 759-779

Jus ad Bellum

Bakircioglu, O, The Disputed Bounds of Muslim Warfare, Journal of Conflict and Security Law, Volume 24, Issue 2, Summer 2019, Pages 239–269

De Wet, E. (2019). The invocation of the right to self-defence in response to armed attacks conducted by armed groups: Implications for attribution. Leiden Journal of International Law, 32(1), 91-110

Gill, T. and Tibori-Szabò, Twelve Key Questions on Self-Defense against Non-State Actors, 95 International Law Studies 467 (2019), p467-505

Martin, C. (2019), Challenging and Refining the “Unwilling or Unable” Doctrine, Vanderbilt Journal Of Transnational Law, VOL. 52:387

Müllerson, R.  Self-defence against Armed Attacks by Non-State Actors, Chinese Journal of International Law, Volume 18, Issue 4, December 2019, Pages 751–775

Schweiger, E. (2019). ‘Targeted killing’ and the lack of acquiescence. Leiden Journal of International Law, 32(4), 741-757

Tzimas, T. Self-Defense by Non-State Actors in States of Fragmented Authority, Journal of Conflict and Security Law, Volume 24, Issue 2, Summer 2019, Pages 175–199

International Criminal Law

D’Alessandra, Federica and Gillett, M.  The War Crime of Starvation in Non-International Armed Conflict, Journal of International Criminal Justice, Volume 17, Issue 4, September 2019, Pages 815–847

Amoroso, Alessandro, Should the ICC Assess Complementarity with Respect to Non-state Armed Groups? Hidden Questions in the Second Al-Werfalli Arrest Warrant, Journal of International Criminal Justice 16 (2018) 1063-1091

Black, A. (2019), Sexual Violence Against Men and Boys in Armed Conflict and its Prosecution before International Criminal Tribunals, Humanitäres Völkerrecht, Volume 2, Issue 3-4, pg. 139

Pérez-León-Acevedo, Juan-Pablo, Assessing Victim Participation during Sentencing at the International Criminal Court, Journal of International Criminal Justice, Volume 17, Issue 2, May 2019, Pages 431–451

Keydar, Renana, ‘Lessons in Humanity’: Re-evaluating International Criminal Law’s Narrative of Progress in the Post 9/11 Era, Journal of International Criminal Justice, Volume 17, Issue 2, May 2019, Pages 229–257

Spadaro, Alessandra, Punish and Be Punished? The Paradox of Command Responsibility in Armed Groups, Journal of International Criminal Justice, 0 (2020), 1-30 (advance copy)

Wheeler, C,  Justice in the Absence of the Accused: Can the Rights of Victims be Fully Vindicated without the Participation of the Accused?, Journal of International Criminal Justice, Volume 17, Issue 2, May 2019, Pages 413–430

Targeting and Detention

Beinlich, Leander, Drones, Discretion, and the Duty to Protect the Right to Life: Germany and its Role in the US Drone Programme before the Higher Administrative Court of Münster

(December 19, 2019). Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law & International Law (MPIL) Research Paper No. 2019-22.

van den Boogaard, J.C., Vermeer A. (2019) Precautions in Attack and Urban and Siege Warfare. In: Gill T., McCormack T., Geiß R., Krieger H., Paulussen C. (eds) Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law, Volume 20, 2017

Crawford, Emily, (2019) Detention in Non-International Armed Conflicts. In: Suzannah Linton et al. (eds) Asia-Pacific Perspectives on International Humanitarian Law, Cambridge University Press, 2019, pp. 251-266.

Gregory, T. (2019). Dangerous feelings: Checkpoints and the perception of hostile intent. Security Dialogue, 50(2), 131–147

Herman O. (2019) Holding Armed Groups to Account under International Human Rights Law: An Analysis of the Under-Explored Practice of Truth Commissions, Human Rights & International Legal Discourse, vol 13(2), pg. 48

Holterhus T.P. (2019) Targeting the Islamic State’s Religious Personnel Under International Humanitarian Law. In: Gill T., McCormack T., Geiß R., Krieger H., Paulussen C. (eds) Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law, Volume 20, 2017

Mégret, Frédéric, Detention by Non-State Armed Groups in Non-International Armed Conflicts: International Humanitarian Law, International Human Rights Law and the Question of Right Authority. in Ezequiel Heffes, Marcos D. Kotlik & Manuel Ventura (eds.), International Humanitarian Law and Non-State Actors: Debates, Law and Practice, T.M.C.

Moodrick-Even Khen, Hilly, From Knives to Kites: Developments and Dilemmas around the Use of Force in the Israeli–Palestinian Conflict since ‘Protective Edge’, Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies, 10(2019) 303-336

Olasolo H., Tenorio-Obando F. (2019) Are the Targets of Aerial Spraying Operations in Colombia Lawful Under International Humanitarian Law?. In: Gill T., McCormack T., Geiß R., Krieger H., Paulussen C. (eds) Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law, Volume 20, 2017

U.S. Supreme Court Denies Certiorari in Habeas Case Brought by Guantánamo Bay Detainee Challenging His Continuing Detention. (2019). American Journal of International Law, 113(4), 849-855

R. J. Vogel, (2019), Beyond Geneva: Detainee Review Processes in Non-International Armed Conflict—A U.S. Perspective, 95 INT’L L. STUD. 94

Weapons

Alley, Roderic,  Leaking Like a Sieve? Transfer Restraints on Small Arms, Light Weapons and Ammunition, Journal of Conflict and Security Law, Volume 24, Issue 2, Summer 2019, Pages 325–342

Biller, J. T. and Schmitt, M.N. (2019), Classification of Cyber Capabilities and Operations as Weapons, Means, or Methods of Warfare, 95 INT’L L. STUD. 179

Ferro, Luca, Western Gunrunners, (Middle-)Eastern Casualties: Unlawfully Trading Arms with States Engulfed in Yemeni Civil War?, Journal of Conflict and Security Law, Volume 24, Issue 3, Winter 2019, Pages 503–535

Klein, N, (2019), Maritime Autonomous Vehicles within the International Law Framework to Enhance Maritime Security, 95 INT’L L. STUD. 244

Lorenzat, A. (2017-2018) The current state of customary international law with regard to the use of chemical weapons in non-international armed conflicts The military law and law of war review, Vol. 56, no. 2, p. 349-409

Schmitt, M. (2019). Wired warfare 3.0: Protecting the civilian population during cyber operations. International Review of the Red Cross, 101(910), 333-355

Foreign Fighters

Baker-Beall, C. (2019). The threat of the ‘returning foreign fighter’: The securitization of EU migration and border control policy. Security Dialogue, 50(5), 437–453

Cuyckens, Hanne and Paulussen, Christophe, The Prosecution of Foreign Fighters in Western Europe: The Difficult Relationship Between Counter-Terrorism and International Humanitarian Law, Journal of Conflict and Security Law, Volume 24, Issue 3, Winter 2019, Pages 537–565

Krähenmann, S. and Vandendriessche, P., From child soldier to child ‘terrorist’: safeguarding innocence from counter-terrorism, ICRC Humanitarian Law & Policy Blog.

Mironova, V, From Freedom Fighters to Jihadists. Human Resources of Non State Armed Groups, Oxford University Press, 2019.

International Responsibility

Mackenzie-Gray Scott, Richard,  State Responsibility for Complicity in the Internationally Wrongful Acts of Non-State Armed Groups, Journal of Conflict and Security Law, Volume 24, Issue 2, Summer 2019, Pages 373–407

Transitional Justice

Akello, G. Reintegration of Amnestied LRA Ex-Combatants and Survivors’ Resistance Acts in Acholiland, Northern Uganda, International Journal of Transitional Justice, Volume 13, Issue 2, July 2019, Pages 249–267

Bussmann, Margit (2019) Military Integration, Demobilization, and the Recurrence of Civil War, Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, 13:1, 95-111

Gordon, Eleanor,  (2019) Gender and Defence Sector Reform: Problematising the Place of Women in Conflict-Affected Environments, Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, 13:1, 75-94

Hartzell, C. and  Hoddie M., Power Sharing and the Rule of Law in the Aftermath of Civil War, International Studies Quarterly, Volume 63, Issue 3, September 2019, Pages 641–653

Mallinder, L. (2019). Metaconflict and international human rights law in dealing with Northern Ireland’s past, Cambridge International Law Journal, 8(1), 5-38

García Martín, L.  (2019) Looking for the ‘Missing Piece of the Puzzle’: Corporate Accountability in Transitional Justice, Human Rights & International Legal Discourse, vol. 13(1) pg. 21

Sedacca, N.  The ‘turn’ to Criminal Justice in Human Rights Law: An Analysis in the Context of the 2016 Colombian Peace Agreement, Human Rights Law Review, Volume 19, Issue 2, June 2019, Pages 315–345

van den Herik, L. and van Reisenm M., International Commissions of Inquiry in a Networked World: Unveiling the Roles of Diasporas through an Eritrean Case Study, International Journal of Transitional Justice, Volume 13, Issue 3, November 2019, Pages 417–434

Wesche, P., Business Actors, Paramilitaries and Transitional Criminal Justice in Colombia, International Journal of Transitional Justice, Volume 13, Issue 3, November 2019, Pages 478–503

Stockwell, J. (2019). Does individual and collective remembrance of past violence impede or foster reconciliation? From Argentina to Sri Lanka. International Review of the Red Cross, 101(910), 97-124

Blog symposium

Between 16-23rd September 2019, there was a book symposium on Armed Groups and International Law and Opinio Juris on Tilman Rodenhäuser’s book Organizing Rebellion.  In addition to introductory and concluding comments from Tilman himself, the symposium included posts the following posts: 

Sassòli,M.  Organizing Rebellion Symposium: Sex and Crime*, Armed Groups and International Law Blog

Fortin, K. Organizing Rebellion Symposium: A Multi-Faceted Study of Armed Groups and International Law, Opinio Juris

Blank, L. Organizing Rebellion Symposium: Translating the Organization Requirement into the Operational Context, Armed Groups and International Law Blog

Heffes, E, Organizing Rebellion Symposium: Non-State Armed Groups’ Organizational Structures–Some Thoughts and Inquiries, Opinio Juris

Murray, D., Organizing Rebellion Symposium: Overcomplicating organisation? Is there really a distinction between the IHL and IHRL organisation threshold ? Armed Groups and International Law

O’Brien, Melanie, Organizing Rebellion Symposium: The Second-Fiddle Perpetrators–Non-State Génocidaires, Opinio Juris

Holvoet, Mathias, Organizing Rebellion Symposium: Crimes Against Humanity Committed by Non-State Actors. How Much ‘Organizing’ Do They Require?, Armed Groups and International Law Blog

Ashraph, Sareta, Organizing Rebellion Symposium: Who Can Commit Genocide? A Discerning Analysis of Non-State Entities as Perpetrators, Opinio Juris

Babington-Ashaye, Adejoké, Organizing Rebellion Symposium: Context or Abstract? A victim-centric approach to understanding key elements of crimes against humanity, Armed Groups and International Law

Reports

Ashley Jackson and Rahmatullah Amiri, Insurgent Bureaucracy: How the Taliban Makes Policy, United States Institute of Peace, 2019.

ICRC report on IHL and the challenges of contemporary armed conflicts (2019), ICRC.

Artificial intelligence and machine learning in armed conflict: A human-centred approach (2019), ICRC

The potential human cost of cyber operations (2019), ICRC

Negotiation of humanitarian access in North Kivu: The perception of armed non-State actors, communities and humanitarians (2019), Geneva Call

The War in Catatumbo, Abuses by Armed Groups Against Civilians Including Venezuelan Exiles in Northeastern Colombia (2019), Human Rights Watch

Paulussen, Christophe, Cuyckens, Hanne and Fortin, Katharine, The Prosecution of Foreign Fighter under International Humanitarian Law: Misconceptions and Opportunities, International Centre for Counter-Terrorism, 2019

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