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Legal Roundup September 2020 – January 2021

February 1, 2021

We are very pleased to present the legal roundup for September 2020 – January 2021, that contains publications on issues related armed groups and international law, non-international armed conflict and the relationship between IHL and IHRL. It was prepared by Andrea Farrés, and it was finalised with input from Ezequiel Heffes and Katharine Fortin.

If you have a 2020 publication which you think should be included in this roundup, please do not hesitate to contact the editors of the blog, Katharine Fortin and Ezequiel Heffes.

Please note that due to paywalls and your institution’s permissions, the given link may not always take you to the text of the article. The Armed Groups and International law blog has published legal roundups since 2012. For previous versions of the legal roundup, see here.

Armed Non-State Actors and International Law

Arai-Takahashi, Yutaka, Threshold in Flux – The Standard for Ascertaining the Requirement of Organization for Armed Groups under International Humanitarian Law, Journal of Conflict & Security Law, 2020, Volume 25, Issue 2, 1-37 [advance access, page numbers will change]

Bradley, Martha M., Classifying Non-International Armed Conflicts. The ‘Territorial Control’ Requirement Under Additional Protocol II in an Era of Complex Conflicts, Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 2, 349-384.

Casalin, Deborah, Legal Obligations of Non-State Armed Groups and Sustainable Development Goal 16,  In: Leal Filho W., Azul A.M., Brandli L., Lange Salvia A., Özuyar P.G., Wall T. (eds) Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions. Encyclopedia of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Springer, Cham, 2021

Derejko, Nathan, A Forever War? Rethinking the Temporal Scope of Non-International Armed Conflict, Journal of Conflict & Security Law, 2020, Volume 25, Issue 2,  1-30 [advance access, page numbers will change]

Lewis, Dustin A., The notion of “protracted armed conflict” in the Rome Statute and the termination of armed conflicts under international law: An analysis of select issues, International Review of the Red Cross, 2020, Volume 101, Number 912, 1091-1115.

Hamid, Linda, and Wouters, Jan (eds.), Rule of Law and Areas of Limited Statehood. Domestic and International Dimensions, Edward Elgar, 2021.

Heffes, Ezequiel, Generating compliance in conflict settings: how to engage armed non-State actors on International Law and live to tell the tale, The Military Law and the Law of War Review, 2020, Volume 58, Issue 2, 194-205.

Hrnjaz, Miloš & Simentić Popović, & Janja, Protracted Armed Violence as a Criterion for the Existence of Non-international Armed Conflict: International Humanitarian Law, International Criminal Law and Beyond, Journal of Conflict & Security Law, Vol. 25, no. 3, Winter 2020, 473-500.

Ínigo Alvarez, Laura, The Obligation to Provide Reparations by Armed Groups: A Norm under Customary International Law? Netherlands International Law Review, 2020, Volume 67, 427-452.

Jo, Hyeran, Alley, Joshua, K., Park, Yohan, Jordan, Soren, Signaling Restraint: International engagement and rebel groups commitment to international law, International Interactions, 2021, Vol 46.

Kalandarishvili-Mueller, Natia, Transforming a Prima Facie NIAC into an IAC: Finding the Answer in IHL, Israel Law Review, 2020, Volume 53, Issue 3, 334 – 354.

Khadhraoui, Hichem, Fragmentation of armed non-State actors in protracted armed conflicts: Some practical experiences on how to ensure compliance with humanitarian norms, International Review of the Red Cross, 2020, Volume 101, Number 912, 993–1000.

Khaitan, Balbul, Alternative to the Existing Rule of Attribution for Use of Force by Non-State Actors in an Armed Conflict, Journal of Conflict & Security Law, 2020, Volume 25, Issue 2, 1-38 [advance access, page numbers will change]

Mantilla, Giovanni, Law Making Under Pressure: International Humanitarian Law and Internal Armed Conflict, Cornell University Press, 2020.

Niyo, Joshua Joseph, The Rebel with the Magnifying Glass: Armed Non-State Actors, the Right to Life and the Requirement to Investigate in Armed Conflict, Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law, 2020, Volume 22, 63-106.

Nyamutata, Conrad, Young Terrorists or Child Soldiers? ISIS Children, International Law and Victimhood, Journal of Conflict & Security Law, 2020, Volume 25, Issue 2, 237-261.

Quintin, Anne, The Nature of International Humanitarian Law: A Permissive or Restrictive Regime, Edward Elgar, 2020.

Schmitt, Michael N., and Watts, Sean, Common Article 1 and the Duty to “Ensure Respect”, International Law Studies, 2020, Volume 96, 674-706.

Spadaro, Alessandra, Repatriation of Family Members of Foreign Fighters: Individual Right or State Prerogative? International & Comparative Law Quarterly, Vol 70, No. 1, Jan 2021, 251-265.

Non-International Armed Conflicts (General)

Ackermann, Tobias and Wuschka, Sebastian,  Investments in Conflict Zones: The Role of International Investment Law in Armed Conflicts, Disputed Territories, and ‘Frozen’ Conflicts, Nijhoff International Investment Law Series, Vol 15, 2020.

Dannenbaum, Tom, Encirclement, Deprivation and Humanity: Revising the San Remo Manual Provisions on Blockade, International Law Studies, 2021, Vol 97, 207-394.

Giraldo Muñoz, Marcela and Serralvo, Jose, International humanitarian law in Colombia: Going a step beyond, International Review of the Red Cross, 2020, Volume 101, Number 912, 1117-1147.

Greenman, Kathryn, Common Article 3 at 70: Reappraising revolution and civil war in international law, Melbourne Journal of International Law, Vol 21, No. 1, 2020, 1-27.

Haspeslagh, Sophie, The ‘linguistic ceasefire’: Negotiating in an Age of Prescription, Security Dialogue, 1-19.

Hrnjaz, Miloš, Popović Simentić, Janja, Protracted Armed Violence as a Criterion for the Existence of Non-international armed conflict: International Humanitarian Law, International Criminal Law and Beyond, Journal of Conflict & Security Law, Winter 2020, Volume 25, Issue 3, 473–500.

Longobardo, Marco, The Legality of Closure on Land and Safe Passage Between the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, Asian Journal of International Law, 2020,  1-39 [advance access, page numbers will change]

Longobardo, Marco, “Super-Robust” Peacekeeping Mandates in NIACs under International Law, Spanish Yearbook of International Law, 2020, Vol 24, 42-72.

Müller-Crepon, Carl, Hunziker, Philipp, Cederman, Lars-Erik, Roads to Rule, Roads to Rebel: Relational State Capacity and Conflict in Africa, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 2020, Volume 65, Issue 2-3, 563-590.

Oscelik, Asli, Entrenching Peace in Law: Do Peace Agreements Possess International Legal Status?, Melbourne Journal of International Law, Vol 21, No. 1, 2020, 1-40.

Roscini, Marco, Intervention in XIXth Century International Law and the Distinction between Rebellions, Insurrections and Civil Wars, 50 Israel Yearbook on Human Rights, 2020, 269-303.

Silvestri, Alessandro, The ‘Revolving Door’ of Direct Participation in Hostilities A Way Forward?, Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies, Volume 11, Issue 2, 410-446.

Sutton, Rebecca, The Humanitarian Civilian: How the Idea of Distinction Circulates Within and Beyond IHL, Oxford University Press, 2021.

Vik Bakken, Ingrid, Buhauf, Halvard, Civil War and Female Empowerment, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 10, 1-28.

Rebel governance/ non-law

Doctor, Austin C., A Motion of No Confidence: Leadership and Rebel Fragmentation, Journal of Global Security Studies, Volume 5, Issue 4, 598–616.

Sawyer, Katherine & Andrews, Talbot, M. Rebel recruitment and retention in civil conflict, International Interactions, Vol 46, Issue 6, 2020, 872-892.

Van Baalen, Sebastian, Local Elites, civil resistance and the responsiveness of rebel governance in Cote d’Ivoire, Journal of Peace Research, 1-15.

Jus ad Bellum

Burra, Srinivas, Use of Force as Self Defence against Non-State Actors and TWAIL Considerations: A Critical Analysis of India’s State Practice, Asian Yearbook of International Law, Vol 24 (2018), 106-126.

Murray, Donette, Flawed and Unnecessary: the ‘Unwilling or Unable’ Doctrine Pertaining to States’ Use of Force in Self-Defence against Non-State Actors, Hague Yearbook of International Law (Vol. 30, 2017), 58-118.

Schmitt, Michael N., Autonomous Cyber Capabilities and the International Law of Sovereignty and Intervention, International Law Studies, 2020, Volume 96, 548-576.

International Criminal Law

Fisher, Kirsten J., The Problem with the Crime of Forced Migration as a Loophole to ICC Jurisdiction. The PTC’s Decision on Myanmar and the Risk to Vulnerable Populations, Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 2, 385-409.

Jo, Hyeran, Simmons, Beth, Radtke, Mitchell, Conflict Actors and the International Criminal Court in Colombia, Journal of International Criminal Justice, 2020, 1-19.

Targeting and Detention

Kolb, Robert and Nakashima, Fumiko, The notion of “acts harmful to the enemy” under international humanitarian law, International Review of the Red Cross, 2020, Volume 101, Number 912, 1171–1199.

Statman, Daniel, Sulitzeanu-Kenan, Raanan, Mandel, Micha, Skerker, Michael, De Wijze, Steven, Unreliable Protection: An Experimental Study of Experts’ In Bello Proportionality Decisions, European Journal of International Law, 2020, Volume 31, Issue 2, 429–453.

Transitional Justice and Peacebuilding

Dahlum, Sirianne and Wig, Tore, Peace Above the Glass Ceiling: The Historical Relationship between Female Political Empowerment and Civil Conflict, International Studies Quarterly, December 2020, Volume 64, Issue 4, 879-893.

Danielsson, Anna, The Urbanity of Peacebuilding: Urban Environments as Objects and Sites of Peacebuilding Knowledge Production, Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, 2020, Volume 14, Number 5, 654-670.

Kastner, Philipp and Roy Trudel, Elisabeth, Unsettling international law and peace-making: An encounter with queer theory, Leiden Journal of international law, 2020, Volume 33, Issue 4, 911 – 930.

Ketola, Hanna, Withdrawing from politics? Gender, agency and women ex-fighters in Nepal, Security Dialogue, 2020, Volume 51, Issue 6, 519–536.

Warnecke, Andrea, Can Intergovernmental Organizations Be Peacebuilders in Intra-State War?, Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, 2020, Volume 14, Number 5, 596-614.

Zarpli, Omer, Shaking Hands with the Internal Enemy: Democracy and Civil Conflict Settlement, International Studies Quarterly, December 2020, Volume 64, Issue 4, 845-856.

Reports

Heffes, Ezequiel and Somer, Jonathan, Inviting non-state armed groups to the table: inclusive strategies towards a more fit for purpose international humanitarian law, Centre for the Study of Armed Groups

Klugman, J., Nagel, R., Redlich Revkin, M.,and Stern, O. M., Can the Women, Peace and Security Agenda and IHL Join Forces? Georgetown Institute for Women, Peace and Security

Metcalfe-Hough, Victoria, Advocating for humanity? Securing better protection of civilians affected by armed conflict, Overseas Development Institute

Paulussen, Christophe & Gillard Emmanuela-Chaira, Staying in an Area Controlled by a Terrorist Organisation: crime or operational necessity? ICCT Policy Brief

Guidelines on protection of natural environment in armed conflict, ICRC

Conduct of Hostilities by Armed Non-State Actors. Report from the 2020 Garance Talks. The Garance Series No. 3, Geneva Call

New Weapons, Proven Precedent. Elements of and Models for a Treaty on Killer Robots, Human Rights Watch

No Law, No Justice, No State for Victims. The Culture of Impunity in Post-Conflict Nepal, Human Rights Watch

You have No Right to Complain, Education, Social Restrictions and Justice in Taliban Held Afghanistan, Human Rights Watch

“Targeting Life in Idlib”. Syrian and Russian Strikes on Civilian Infrastructure, Human Rights Watch

“They Burn Through Everything”. The Human Cost of Incendiary Weapons and the Limits of International Law, Human Rights Watch

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